Ningbo Jintian Copper (Group) Co., Ltd.
Ningbo Jintian Copper (Group) Co., Ltd.

A Passage to Help You Understand Motor Classification, Suggested for Bookmarking

Electric motors, commonly referred to as "motors," are electromagnetic devices that facilitate the conversion or transmission of electrical energy based on the laws of electromagnetic induction. Their primary function is to generate driving torque, serving as a power source for various appliances and mechanical devices.

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There are two main types of motors based on the power source they are driven by: Direct Current Motors (DC) and Alternating Current Motors (AC).

A motor typically consists of coils, magnets, and a rotor. Let's delve into the approximate structures and comparisons of three types of motors: Stepper Motors, Brushed DC Motors, and Brushless DC Motors.

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Stepper Motor: Coils are fixed on the outer side, while magnets rotate on the inner side.

Brushed DC Motor: Magnets are fixed on the outer side, and coils rotate on the inner side. Powered and current direction changed by brushes and commutator.

Brushless DC Motor: Coils are fixed on the outer side, and magnets rotate on the inner side.

Brushed DC Motor

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The permanent magnet in a brushed DC motor remains fixed, while its coils can rotate around the internal center. The stationary side is called the "stator," and the rotating side is the "rotor."

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The following is a schematic diagram representing the conceptual structure.

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The rotor has three commutators around the rotating center axis (used for bending metal strips to switch current). To avoid contact, the commutators are spaced 120 degrees apart (360°÷3 pieces). The commutators rotate with the axis.

One commutator connects to one end of a coil, and the three commutators and three coils form a circuit network (ring) as they rotate.

Two brushes are fixed at 0° and 180° to make contact with the commutators. The external DC power source connects to the brushes, and the current flows along the path: brush → commutator → coil → brush.

Brushless DC Motor

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The image below shows the appearance and structure of a brushless motor, with examples of spindle motors for rotating discs in CD players and FDD device spindle motors. There are 9 coils in the left example and 12 coils in the right example, fixed on a circuit board and wound around an iron core.

The disc-shaped component on the right side of the coil is the permanent magnet rotor. The outer part is the permanent magnet, and the rotor's shaft inserts into the center of the coil, covering part of the coil. The permanent magnet revolves around the outer part of the coil.

Stepper Motor

A stepper motor, also known as a "pulse motor," accurately controls rotation angles and speeds synchronously with pulse signals. It is widely used in equipment requiring precise positioning without the need for a position sensor, relying solely on open-loop control.

The image below, from left to right, shows examples of the appearance, internal structure, and conceptual structure of a stepper motor.

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A stepper motor has a structure where coils are fixed, and the permanent magnet rotates. The internal structure concept diagram on the right is an example of a PM motor using two phases (two sets of coils). In the basic structure of a stepper motor, coils are arranged on the outer side, and the permanent magnet is on the inner side. Besides two phases, there are also types with a higher number of phases, such as three and five phases.

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